Vitamin K is classified into K1 and K2
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin and can be divided into two types according to the form of the
Isoprenoid chain - Phylloquinone (K1) and Menaquinone (K2). The synthesis of phylloquinone
mainly occurs in plants, and menaquinone is synthesized by bacteria.
Vitamin K1, Phylloquinone
Vitamin K1, which is called Phylloquinone, can be found in green vegetables such as spinach, broccoli, and kale, so it can be supplemented by eating vegetables.
Vitamin K1 is an essential protein for blood clotting as a substance involved in the synthesis of prothrombin, a blood clotting factor. The generated prothrombin becomes thrombin by the action of platelets and calcium in plasma, and thrombin turns fibrinogen into fibrin, which causes blood to coagulate.
Vitamin K2, Menaquinone
Vitamin K2, called menaquinone, is a vitamin that improves bone health and
cardiovascular health by affecting calcium metabolism in the body.
When it comes to “bone health,” calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium are commonly recognized by the public. However, a 2019 meta-analysis found that those who took the calcium and vitamin D together had a 17% increased risk of stroke and also an increased risk of heart disease (BMJ 2011;342:d2040doi:10.1136/bmj.d2040, Ann Intern Med. 2019;171(3):190-198). This is because calcium intake for bone health does not go to our bones and is deposited in our blood vessels, forming calcium plaques in case vitamin K2 is not enough in the body.
Calcium is released from bones to maintain the pH of acidified blood, caused by drinking, stress, smoking, eating habits, and aging. As bone density decreases and the concentration of free calcium in the blood increases, calcium calcification, therefore, occurs. Due to these problems, it is vital to consume vitamin K2, which prevents calcification of blood vessels by allowing calcium liberated in the blood to be absorbed into the bones.
[meta-analysisInc: It refers to a research method that objectively and quantitatively synthesizes and examines the results of many studies conducted on the same or similar subject, and can draw more valid and generalized conclusions by synthesizing individual studies with different characteristics and conditions]
The Difference Between Vitamin K1 and K2
||Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone)
||Vitamin K2 (menaquinone)
||Regulates calcium metabolism, prevents calcium plaque
|Foods found in
||Green leafy vegetables, vegetable oil
||(MK-4) Butter, Cheese / (MK-7) Natto, Cheonggukjang
|Possibility to be stored in the body
|Possibility to be reused in the body
||Can be reused
(Don't need to eat or add separately)
|Can't be reused
(Need to eat or add separately)